Was he born into slavery? There is no record, however, of any Fortune Freeman or Conant that served in Nixon's regiment after June 4, 1780. But when Fortune Freeman applied for a pension, he included one tattered sheet of paper that confirmed a discharge in 1783 from the 4th Massachusetts Regiment, which does have a record of a Fortune Freeman, who enlisted in 1781 and served until the end of the war. Also serving in various theaters of operations were Native American troops. Within two months, however, Washington reversed this decision, and despite many attempts to block Blacks from serving their country, hundreds of Blacks enlisted nonetheless. From free and enslaved Blacks, to Native Americans, native born colonists, to foreign recruits, Washington's integrated army was a diverse and unique fighting force for a longand grueling eight-year war. [2] A preliminary study of pension records from 1981 found that of 13,500 Revolutionary War veterans, more than half (54 percent) had moved from their home state after the war. [11] Fortune is, however, included in a genealogical history of the Conant family, but the only information included says that he lived in Billerica and served three years in the Continental Army. 2021 Valley Forge Legacy Muster Roll Project. Organized between May 1-20, 1775, to consist of 10 companies from Litchfield and Hartford Counties. December 1775 to February 1776 - The battalion was mustered and organized at Burlington and Trenton to consist of eight companies from Gloucester, During the larger Saratoga Campaign, when British and their Native American allies were besieging Fort Stanwixin upper New York State, a pro-patriot militia columnunder the command of Nicholas Herkimer marched to the patriot'srelief. Elnathan Haskell's Company in the 4th Massachusetts Regt. (2007). Stay up-to-date on the American Battlefield Trust's battlefield preservation efforts, travel tips, upcoming events, history content and more. The troops who came to camp included men from all thirteen of the original states. The new British commander, Lieutenant General Henry Clinton, received orders to The only definitive information about Freemans post-war life is that he resided in New York City by 1818. When Congress first passed the law, they expected fewer than 2,000 eligible applicants[5] and estimated that it would cost $155,000. The name Fortune Conant appears only in muster rolls. [39]"About 4,000 (22 percent) of the beneficiaries under the 1818 act chose not to submit to a means test. [12] Henry Allen Hazen, History of Billerica, Massachusetts, with a Genealogical register (Boston: A Williams & Co, 1887), 25. WebMuster Roll of Capt. Whether there of his own volition or brought to the court by a city official, it remains unclear, but Freeman, "extremely poor"[1] and unable to work, swore to the court that he served as a soldier in the Revolution, and applied for a veteran's pension for some relief. Army returns reveal that two-thirds of the nearly 2,000 men who perished died during the warmer months of March, April, and May, when supplies were more abundant. Stop the Largest Rezoning in Orange County History, The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities (Studies in North American Indian History), Native Americans in the American Revolution: How the War Divided, Devastated, and Transformed the Early American Indian World, The Effects of Weather on 18th Century Warfare, Allies and Enemies: British and American Attitudes towards Native Americans during the Revolution, African Americans in the Armed Forces Timeline, 5 Surprising Places to Find Native American Influence in History. A unique historical record compiled from the rolls made by the Hanoverian army of the Duke of Cumberland after the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Historical and Military Criticism, with Topographical Illustration (New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1876), 336. Henry Allen Hazen, "History of Billerica, Massachusetts, with a Genealogical register. Ten thousand more veterans applied the following year. Sign up for our quarterly email series highlighting the environmental benefits of battlefield preservation. Ceys, Danforth - Dean, Samuel, Muster rolls (index file cards) of the Revolutionary War, 1767-1833 [Massachusetts], Image 1193, via FamilySearch.org. Regiments at Valley Forge. Perhaps he was, and he simply misremembered the battle. NARA M246, page 150, via Fold3.com. [28] An Account of Clothing Delivered Lt. I found them employed in building little huts for their winter quarters. It is possible that Fortune Conant, a young man who enlisted either enslaved or perhaps recently freed, later changed his name. [5] John P. Resch. By the end of 1818, the program cost nearly $2 million.[7]. The Continental Army lost the battle and retreated, leaving Philadelphia in English hands, though most of Washington's troops survived. Royal Army - under the command of the Earl of Washington rapidly set troops in motion to bring on a general engagement with the enemy. Others, born free, joined and fought for home, country, and a hope to get any financial footing in life. Joseph Marsh's Company, 1794 387 Capt. The defenders were a motley collection of colonists, from various New England colonies. The Fortune Freeman who enlisted in the 4th Massachusetts and is discharged from the 4th Massachusetts, enlisted in March 1781 in Hingham, Massachusetts. He then said he reenlisted in Boston in 1780 into the same company and regiment. "Politics and Public Culture: The Revolutionary War Pension Act of 1818." WebThe Battle of Brandywine was the largest single day engagement of the American Revolution where nearly 30,000 soldiers (not including civilians, teamsters, servants, and By summer, Washington could claim that the war effort was going well. and Hull stayed with Kosciuszko during the heaviest fighting in the Southern theater. BT Federal Identification Number (EIN): 54-1426643. Organized January-February 1776 at Chester from Chester, Bucks, and Lancaster Counties. 1783, after a brief stay in Halifax, returned home to England. He appeared on muster rolls for York Hutts, an encampment in New Jersey, from November 1781 to January 1782. A lack of records is not unusual for revolutionary soldiers, particularly soldiers of color, but Freeman's claims are illustrative of the experiences many soldiers of color experienced during the American Revolution. But if Freeman was not at Brandywine, was he still injured in the war? https://www.loc.gov/collections/george-washington-papers/articles-and-essays/timeline/the-american-revolution/. WebMost unit muster rolls did not specify the race of soldiers. Was he enslaved by the family? There is, however, a "Fortune Conant" who enlisted in Elijah Danforth's company in 1777. /Artifact <>BDC Hingham, though much smaller than Boston, sat on the same vital harbor that brought in goods, and more importantly in the later war years, support from France in the form of troops, arms, and money. Recruited throughout the spring of 1778, the regiment's companies comprised Black and white soldiers, along with Native Americans. WebOn December 9, 1775, three companies from the First joined the 2nd Virginia Regiment in defeating Dunmore's troops at the Battle of Great Bridge near Norfolk. It is very likely Fortune Conant collected a bounty of 24 from Billerica, 20 from Massachusetts, and 20 dollars from the Continental Congress as bounty payments when someone finally convinced him to enlist.[17]. During the Battle of Brandywine, Washington attempted to prevent the British army from taking Philadelphia, the patriot capital. n3kGz=[==B0FX'+tG,}/Hh8mW2p[AiAN#8$X?AKHI{!7. The warriors of these two tribes were among the last of Lafayettes forces to retreat across the Schuylkill River that day. [16] Hazen, History of Billerica, Massachusetts, with a Genealogical register, 238. 50, Image 664, via FamilySearch.org. Towards the end of March 1778, Nixon's regiment moved to the Highland's department, overseeing the defenses of the Hudson River near New York City. [Muster rolls, etc., 1743-1787] by Montgomery, Thomas Lynch, 1862- Publication date 1906 Topics Pennsylvania. "[16] Perhaps these recruitment efforts helped Fortune Freeman remember Danforth's name so many decades later. Although "sadly in want of clothing" the brigade participated in the battle of Monmouth. Not only were they serving in units from the northern colonies, but 58 African Americans had mustered into the North Carolina Line. APPENDIX 1 5 for the period Nov. 1779 through Feb. 1780 with the notation, Discharged Jan[uary] 19, 1780. 30 Webas a baggage guard at the Battle of Monmouth, N.J. (June 28, 1778). Aside from his own declarations, few records of his life exist before or after the war. It appears that Freeman, presumably because of his lengthy combat and campaign experience, is listed as "on command" with a Colonel Alexander Scammel, who led a New Hampshire regiment. The main military force, which coalesced under General George Washington as the Continental Army, was not an integrated army until 1776. Though we do not know why Freeman enlisted to fight, something persuaded him to join in the fight for independence and something kept him in the war for over six years. 52, Part 2 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1986), 184, via Haithi Trust. Certainly, hardship did occur at Valley Forge, but the encampment experience could be characterized as suffering as usual, for privation was the continental soldiers constant companion. The Muster Rolls are neatly typed pages tightly bound in oversized books which require the use of a special overhead copying process. Military Officers Recorded in the Office of the Secretary of State, The integrated army in the Revolutionwasthe last integrated American army until the Korean Warnearly175 years later in 1950. If he served as part of Nixon's regiment, it is much more likely that he fought in Saratoga. When he returned to Massachusetts, he may have been able to finally claim freedom for himself. Yet, they were present at every engagement and shivered through every winter. S 43,572, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files. WebBattle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778 Wyoming Valley Massacre, July 3, 1778 Battle of Rhode Island, Aug. 29, 1778 Tryon's Attack upon New Haven, etc., July 5-10, 1779 Storming of Stony Point, July 15, 1779 Sullivan's Indian Raid, July-Aug., 1779 Battle of Springfield, N. J., June 23, 1780 Affair of Fort George, N. Y., Oct. 11, 1780 He is currently a Supervisory Park Our FREE Virtual Teacher Institute is the can't miss online educator event of the summer. Inflation and depreciation meant that these bounty payments were not worth their face value by the time soldiers were paid. While encamped at Valley Forge, General Washington asked for a delegation of Oneida and Tuscarora warriors sent to his army. [Names in bold are believed . Every purchase supports the mission. What about his parents or any siblings? "[35] Composed of men from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, the regiment marched South to Yorktown, engaging in skirmishes along the way, and served as part of the 2nd brigade of The Light Infantry Division during the Siege of Yorktown.[36]. To accomplish this, the British commander in chief, Sir William Howe, landed nearly 17,000 of His Majestys finest troops at the head of Chesapeake Bay. A muster roll of 4 Creek Indians who arrived Sep. 23rd, 1851. [15] Town records 1685-1779 Billerica, Massachusetts Land Records, 1620-1986, Middlesex County, Image 598, via FamilySearch.org. WebThe New Jersey Historical Society stated that in 1760 the regiment was part of the final campaign against the French in Canada. WebUnder Dearborn the 3rd regiment was at the Battle of Monmouth, where some of its most soldierly men participated. [28] Conant also appeared in a bounty note issued by the State of Massachusetts Bay on January 1, 1780. in the service of the United States Commanded by William Shepard for the Month of September 1781, Muster/payrolls, and various papers (1763-1808) of the Revolutionary War, Vol. Captain Danforth and his family lived in Billerica for years, with Danforth even serving as a minute man in 1775. [24], At the end of May and beginning of June, the British returned to King's Ferry. For Washington to split his army and keep half in New York and half on the march, he had to assemble units quickly that could march with speed. Disease, not cold or starvation, was the true scourge of the camp. Rather than wait for deliverance, the army located supplies, built log cabins to stay in, constructed makeshift clothing and gear, and cooked subsistence meals of their own concoction. With no other information provided, Mary's terms of service are unknown, and it is unclear what happened to her later in life. NARA M804, pages 4 and 9, via Fold3.com. WebWith the return of the Continental army to the outskirts of New York City following the Battle of Monmouth Court House in June, muster rolls of the army were taken in White [18] Fortune Freeman, Pension No. The 3rd then wintered near Danbury, Connecticut. The largest conglomeration of tribes, the Iroquois Confederacy, split along regional lines. The 38th was stationed at Fort Washington and Long Island during the war and was involved in the following conflicts: Muster Books and Pay Lists 12-5171-5172 Shelf List.pdf. endstream endobj 18 0 obj <> endobj 19 0 obj (~MLj5s) endobj 25 0 obj <> endobj 27 0 obj <> endobj 39 0 obj <> endobj 38 0 obj <> endobj 20 0 obj [/ICCBased 40 0 R] endobj 40 0 obj <>stream As for Mary, why was she bound out, and when did her service start? 2 (1988): 13958. Included in their ranksof2,400were approximately 120 Black militiamen, including Peter Salem. application/pdf NJDARM: Collection Guide - Fortune Conant's name also does not appear in any land records.[11]. When troubles threatened with the Colonies, the 38th was one of the first corps despatched from Ireland to America. A muster roll of 16 Creek Indians who arrived presumably in late 1850 or early 1851. And then later, records show that a "Fortune Freeman" enlisted in 1781 into the 4th Massachusetts, serving until discharge in 1783. The Continental Army was integrated and included many patriots of African descent. WebBattle of Monmouth, also called Battle of Monmouth Court House, (June 28, 1778), indecisive engagement in the American Revolution, fought at Monmouth, New Jersey. In a History of Billerica, Massachusetts, a William Conant is listed as taxed in the town from 1776 to 1779, and his daughter Betsey, is stated as being baptized there in August 1795. Who were his parents? Peter Salem was a freed slave from Massachusetts who is known for mortally wounding British Major John Pitcairn during the fighting at Bunker Hill. Hb``$WR~|@T#2S/`M. The Valley Forge Muster Roll for December 1777 to June 1778 indicated that 20 to 30 members of Sheldons Regiment were still at Valley Forge at that time, Left Valley Forge with 306 assigned, 194 fit for duty. The British surrender at Saratoga brought the French into the war as American allies in February 1778. It is likely that Freeman decided to stay in New York after his discharge. [27] By December, he appears once again in an account of soldiers receiving clothing at camp in Peekskill. WebThere is a Fifer Walter Maddox listed in the muster rolls of the 7th Maryland Regiment, Continental line. [1] Fortune Freeman, Pension No. There is no record of an African American serving higher than the rank of corporal in the main army. On December 31, 1783, Freeman received his honorable discharge from the 4th Massachusetts Regiment, having been enlisted for three years. [17] The committee in Billerica voted for an additional bounty of 24 to "such persons as will now Inlist into the Continental Army" but they needed to figure out how the money would be raised for the additional bounty. worst areas in torrevieja, how to tell your cousin you love her, shooting in clarksdale, ms last night,
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